English Language Infographics

5 Stages of Second Language Acquisition

SILENT OR RECEPTIVE PHASE In this first stage, second language learners dedicate time to learning the vocabulary of the new language. They may also practice saying new terms.


EARLY PRODUCTION This second phase involves the second language user beginning to “collect” new words. During this time they may also start to say some terms and may even begin forming short phrases of early word combinations.


SPEECH EMERGENCE OR PRODUCTION By the time second language learners enter into this third stage, they have collected several thousand words. This is an exciting phase as they begin to communicate by combining these learned words into short phrases and sentences – their second language is truly becoming “connected”.


INTERMEDIATE FLUENCY The fourth level is said to occur when speakers begin communicating in complex sentences (that is, sentences will include conjunctions to sequence and connect related clauses). This is a critical stage for allowing even more connected language and true conversations to emerge. Second language learners may also begin to think in their second language at this time, again reflecting the significant progress that has been made.


CONTINUED LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT OR FLUENCY This stage may last for an extended time. Here, second language learners will continue to develop their new language and to achieve accuracy with increasing complexity and with social pragmatics.  


Source: Bilingual Kids Spot

Time Idioms in English

TIME FLIES = Time passes quickly. Time flies when you’re in good company.


ON-TIME = arriving at the correct time and not late The train was on time.


IN TIME = early enough I want to be home in time for my favorite TV show.


TIME IS UP = you’ve run out of time, there’s no more time to finish something Time’s up. Put your pencils down and pass your worksheet forward.


ONLY TIME WILL TELL = we’ll have to wait to find out the truth in the future Will we ever travel to Mars? Only time will tell.


AS TIME GOES BY = as time passes or moves As time goes by you’ll forget these bad moments.


TIME HEALS ALL WOUNDS = our emotional hurts will leave us as time passes by


KILL TIME = do something unimportant and uninteresting to pass time We’ve got 3 hours until our flight leaves. How are we going to kill the time?    


Source: Visual English School

A Brief Timeline of the English Language

English is notorious for its odd spellings and pronunciations. Knowing about a few key events will help you understand why. English is a hodgepodge of many languages! 


6000 B.C.

The English Channel is formed, cutting off the British Isles from mainland Europe. 


500 B.C.

The Celts begin to colonize Britain.

Words of Celtic origin in modern English: bog, clan, crag, glen, pet, slew, slogan, trousers


55 B.C.

First Roman invasion of Britain. Rome ends up occupying Britain for about 500 years. 



Germanic Anglo-Saxon tribes, I begin to inhabit the British Isles, and the English language is born

Words of Anglo-Saxon origin in modern English: arm, dark, forgive, house, laugh, man, pillow, read, strong, town, woman, year


450 — 480

Earliest Old English inscriptions.



The Anglo-Saxons start converting to Christianity, and English starts adopting new words from Latin, such as angel, candle, hymn, lobster, martyr, plant, noon, school, sock 



Britain first undergoes raids from I the Vikings, giving English words from Old Norse: bull, club, law, ransack, reindeer, slaughter, wings



The Norman Conquest. William the Conqueror invades Britain, and Britain’s nobility speaks French for over 300 years.

Words to English from French: aisle, beef, castle, cloak, dragon, judge, market, music, perform, scarlet, sax, trumpet, villain, war


1350 — 1500

The Great Vowel Shift. The pronunciation of long vowel sounds changes in English. 



William Shakespeare begins writing plays. Shakespeare coins almost 2,000 new words in English, like anchovy, domineering, gloomy,  investment, luggage, rant, stealthy 



Jamestown becomes the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. Britain would go on to create settlements the world over, and each area would make its own contributions to English.

A few examples are: avatar (from India), kangaroo (from Australia), zombie (from West Africa) 



Samuel Johnson publishes his Dictionary of the English Language, which becomes the first widely used book of its kind. Dr. Johnson is responsible for many spellings in modern English. 



The Oxford English Dictionary honors an emoji as its Word of the Year. 


Source: Next Step English

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